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PARTICLEVER technologies enable you to verify emissions and look for particular dangers. They help you determine the scale and assess the performance of protective equipment.
There are multiple additive manufacturing techniques, each one having problems with exposure to specific particles. The techniques that implement metal powders are among the most critical, as some powders may cause dangers due to their chemical composition and whether they contain nanoparticles. It is therefore not rare to see companies deploy high-level protection strategies for this type of application. Another category consists of polymer extrusion, and as such certain phases and machines emit nanoparticles. Measurement is useful in order to determine emissivity and thereby define a suitable prevention strategy that also takes usage into account.
The problem of particle emissions during incineration is complex and manifold. First, combustion phenomena will generate a large number of particles from the degradation of the incinerated materials and from the furnaces themselves. In addition, the particles incorporated into the incinerated materials may themselves be released. It has particularly been demonstrated that nano-fillers incorporated into products could be released from their matrix during the incineration phase. The other unique feature is that the chemical compositions may be highly varied and little-known. Certain substances may be occasionally present, which means that the period during which measurements are taken must be chosen. PARTICLEVER technologies make it possible to work in complex environments with very little knowledge of the substances involved. Tracking exposures over long durations to take variability into account is a powerful asset for this industry.
The problem of particle inhalation risk in research laboratories is a common one. This is due to the large variety of substances (which change regularly as projects come and go) and the small quantities handled. Dealing with new substances means less knowledge of the dangers, and as such the safety target is often set at a total absence of exposure. PARTICLEVER technologies make it possible to verify it. Some particular events or experiences require laboratories to temporarily work with a diminished protection strategy; PARTICLEVER can be used in such cases to verify that exposures remain limited.
Construction is a sector that is heavily exposed to particles of very diverse origins, ranging from simple dust to nanoparticles emitted by engines to fibers (in particular asbestos). Knowledge of particle types and their respective exposures is a major issue in protecting workers. That said, given how many types of particles there are, the approach must be specially structured, and targeted with respect to the different categories of particles (chemicals, unintentional particles, fibers, pollution from motors, etc.). PARTICLEVER or one of its partners can help you structure this approach.
Given the strategic challenge that the size and weight of batteries represents, the greater chemical efficiency of nanomaterials means that they are already in common use in this field. Additionally, developments in nanotechnology may represent an important path forward for this sector. The battery industry therefore faces two different issues: Managing what already exists with respect to new assessments of nano risk, and setting up dedicated strategies for new nanomaterials used in research and development. Many metals may be used, such as rare metals, hazardous metals (nickel, cadmium, lead), as well as lithium.
Although new nanodrugs are under development, the pharmaceutical industry is increasingly faced with an issue that it shares with the food industry, related to additives and processing aids, because they may include nanometric fractions. The press talks about her frequently, particularly the additives E171 (titanium dioxide) and E551 (amorphous silica). The fact that they contain nanoparticles, separate from potentially mandatory product labeling, is reason enough to verify that the prevention strategies employed in manufacturing areas are suitable.
The issues of particle exposure in public transport are of concern both to professional employees of operating companies and passengers alike. The particles may be highly varied, and will depend on the type of transportation and the configuration of the locations. Some situations are already known in order to have particular characteristics with respect to particles. This is true of subway tunnels, for which confined spaces concentrate particles, particularly those emitted by metal friction, as well as airport enclosures, where scientific publications have reported that commercial aircraft engines are one of the most-emissive sources measured in terms of the number of particles. With respect to road transportation, exposure to diesel particles may be a matter of concern, particularly in polluted urban areas.
The paint, ink, and varnish industries are deeply affected by the issue of particle inhalation risk, because many raw materials in powder form are integrated into products. Many pigments that have long been used exist in nanomaterial form, while newer substances are also incorporated to make formulas stronger, pollution-resistant, self-cleaning, conductive, etc. Information related to particle size provides a different kind of insight into the perceived dangerousness of substances, but does not necessarily mean deep changes are needed to prevention strategies. The type of substances and actual exposures must be taken into account when interpreting and setting targets. The complexity of particle mixtures present in air involves the use of high-level selective techniques, like PARTICLEVER.
The most commonly used substance for pollution removal through photocatalysis is nanometric titanium dioxide. If it isn’t nanometric, it won’t be truly effective for photocatalysis. In accordance with the recommendations of NIOSH (2011) and INRS (2016) and as a result of the likely classification as a suspected carcinogen (class 2) by the ECHA, it is now wise to assess and potentially strengthen TiO2-related prevention strategies, especially if it’s being used in nanoparticulate form for photocatalysis applications.
PARTICLEVER technologies help you verify nanometric TiO2 exposures. They make it possible to examine raw materials and to detect and measure in-shop exposures.
The main risk with respect to particles in the cosmetics sector comes from the use of dry raw materials in formulations. Many powders, of natural or synthetic origin, are transferred between containers, then incorporated into mixtures. Depending on the volume and processes, the exposure levels may vary greatly. Raw materials that may pose a particular danger are metal oxide powders (like TiO2 or ZnO), some of which may be nanomaterials, as well as organic powders. Some processes such as cooking and thermoforming may emit fine incidental particles.
PARTICLEVER technologies enable you to verify exposure to carbon black and amorphous silica. They help in setting exposure targets for each substance. They enable periodic or continuous measurement.
The rubber industry, and particularly the tire manufacturing industry, is one of the most heavily nanomaterial-using industries. Today, several substances defined as nanomaterials are included in the composition of tires. The most common substances are powders of carbon black and of amorphous silica. Given the emerging awareness of the use of nanomaterials and the real benefit that they provide in products, these industries are openly engaged in a risk management policy (see work published at the OECD). An accurate knowledge of exposure will make it possible for these industries to determine whether they need to strengthen their prevention strategies.
Protecting employees from inhalation risk is already part of the everyday lives of industrial hygiene and safety specialists in the chemicals industry. Thanks to dynamism and innovation in the sector, numerous substances are changing or are even totally new, which requires going further in understanding the particles emitted by the processes and the corresponding exposures. Nanomaterials are only one example. PARTICLEVER technologies are particularly well-suited to the deployment of new monitoring strategies, both for sampling protocols and in analysis methods.